Book of Exodus

Overview of Exodus

The book of exodus is the second book in the old testament of the bible. It is the book of national redemption. It is also the second book of the Pentateuch. The title of the book in Hebrew is “The names”. The English title is an exodus and the meaning is “way out.”

This book is about the great deliverance of Israel people from Egypt and forging a special relationship with them and appearing at Mt.sinai. The book of exodus begins with Egypt and ends at Mt.sinai. Here we find the stories of the ten plagues, the first Passover, the parting of the red sea, and the ten commandments.

The Israel people went from a rich river to a desert. They are also gone through the natural appearance of food to the supernatural appearance, from slavery to freedom, from despair to hope, from serving Egyptians to being served by God.

This book takes us through about 82 years. The book gets its name when the nation of Israel people emigrate from Egypt but that’s only the first part of the story.

This is the first book in which God first layout his expectations for Israel people. Most of the old testament is about How Israel people meet or fail to meet these expectations. Exodus will help in basic understanding so that you will be able to understand the other books of the old testament.

Who wrote the book of exodus?

Moses is credited as the human author of the old testament book of exodus. It is the part of the Torah and it is also known as the law of Moses.

Moses is the main character in this book and He is the one who received directives from God. Divisions: The outline of Exodus can be divided into three parts:

  • The redemption from Egypt, Exodus chapters 1-19
  • The giving of the law, Exodus chapters 20-31
  • The response of the people chapters 32-40

In these chapters we find the story of Moses, ten plagues of Egypt, the crossing of the red sea, manna, water from the rock, the appearance of God, giving ten commandments, instructions for the tabernacle, the golden calf, the building of the tabernacle and the coming of God to dwell in the tabernacle.

There is a single key phrase that is prominent in this book. It is the phrase “I am the lord” and it is used 16 times. The word lord is found as 386 times. Direct quotes from the exodus were found in 12 different books in the new testament. God revealed himself throughout the book:

  • He is the one who controls history ( chapter 1)
  • He revealed himself in a new name (3:14)
  • He is the sovereign of the covenant relationship( 19:5)
  • Faithful redeemer( 6:6,15:13)
  • Judge of his own people(4:14;20:5)
  • Transcendent one(33:20)

How many chapters in exodus

There are a complete of 40 chapters within the Book of Exodus. the primary half the chapters tell the story of how God used Moses to save lots of his people.

Outline of Exodus

Exodus timeline chart

Israel in Egypt: 1:1-12-36

A. God chooses Moses, 11-24:31

  • The oppression of Israel, 1:1-4:31
  • The preparation of Moses, 2:1-25
  • The call of Moses, 3:1-4:31

B. God sends Moses to Pharaoh, 5:1-7:1

  • First encounter with Pharaoh
  • The second encounter with Pharaoh

C. God authenticates Moses by the plagues, 7:14-12:36

  • First plague: blood, 7:14-24
  • Second plague: frogs, 7:25-8:15
  • Third plague: gnats, 8:16-19
  • Fourth plague: flies, 8:20-32
  • Fifth plague: diseases on livestock, 9:1-7
  • Sixth plague: boils, 9:8-12
  • Seventh plague: hail, 9:13-15
  • Eighth plague: locusts, 10:1-20
  • Ninth plague: darkness, 10:21-29
  • Tenth plague: death,11:1-12:36

Israel’s journey to Sinai, 12:37- 18:27

  1. The departure from Egypt, 12: 37-51
  2. The dedication of firstborn, 13:1-16
  3. The direction of the cloud and fire, 13:17-22
  4. The drying of the red sea, 14:1-22
  5. The destruction of pursuing Egyptians, 14:23-31
  6. The deliverance was sung by Moses and people, 15:1-21
  7. The Dissatisfaction of the people, 15:22-17:7
  8. The defeat of Amalek, 17:8-16

Israel at Sinai: Ex 19:1-40:38

  1. The giving of the law, 19:1-40:38
  2. The institution of the Tabernacle, 25:1-31-18
  3. The breaking of the law,32:1-34:35
  4. The construction of Tabernacle, 35:1-40:38

The Important characters in exodus are

God(Yahweh): He is the creator of heaven and the earth. He chooses the people of Israel to represent Him on earth. God fought against the gods of Egypt and freed Israel from their bondage and then made them a new nation.

Yahweh selected the descendants of Abraham, Issac, and Jacob as his people that will serve Him alone. Moses: He is the greatest of the old testament prophets who serves as a mediator between God and humans in the book of exodus.

Moses negotiates with the king of Egypt Pharaoh for Israel’s people and passes God’s law to the people of Israel and pleads for mercy on Israel’s when they anger God. Aaron: He was the brother of Moses and his right hand. He is made as the high priest of the nation of Israel.

He also assists as a spokesperson to Moses. Pharaoh: He is the chief antagonist in the exodus. Pharaoh is worshipped by the Egyptian pantheon. God defeated Pharaoh and the people of Egypt by sending ten plagues. He also destroyed Pharaoh’s army on the Red sea.

10 plagues in Exodus

  1. Turning water into blood (exodus 7:14-24)
  2. Frogs ( exodus 7:25- 8:12)
  3. Lice ( exodus 8:16-19)
  4. Flies or wild animals (exodus 8: 20-32)
  5. Pestilence in livestock ( Exodus 9: 1-7)
  6. Boils (Exodus 9:8-12)
  7. Thunderstorms of hail ( exodus 9:13-35)
  8. Locusts (Exodus 10: 1-20)
  9. Darkness for 3 days( exodus 10:21-29)
  10. Death of firstborn (Exodus 11, 12: 1-30)

10 commandments in exodus

  1. You shall not have any other Gods ( Exodus 20:3)
  2. You shall not make any graven images ( Exodus 20:4-6)
  3. You shall not take the name of the Lord unimportant ( Exodus 20:7)
  4. You shall Remember to keep holy the sabbath day ( Exodus 20:8-11)
  5. Honor your father and mother ( Exodus 20:12)
  6. You shall not murder ( Exodus 20:13)
  7. You shall not commit any adultery ( Exodus 20: 14)
  8. You shall not steal ( Exodus 20:15)
  9. You shall not bear any false witness on your neighbor’s ( Exodus 20: 16)
  10. You shall not covet with your neighbor’s wife ( Exodus 20: 17)

Exodus in context

Exodus is the story and it is a starburst of old and new testament theology. God has already made promises to Abraham in Genesis as his descendants would be mighty people and they will possess the land of Canaan and through them, the whole earth will be blessed by God.

When we see in Genesis God is working through the family but whereas is Exodus God is working through the entire nation.

Key themes in exodus

In Exodus, we see God making Israel people as his own. In the entire book of exodus, God hears the cries of Israel people for help. God rescued them from their oppressors and made them his own people.


God also makes a binding agreement with the people of Israel by establishing himself as their God and them as his people.

Book of Exodus summary

The book of Exodus starts where Genesis leaves off. It is also called the book of Moses in the bible. Egypt is the young nation of Israel.

Pharaoh noticed Israel and enslaved them. Forty years later God chooses Moses to deliver Israel from the hand of the pharaoh. God also makes a covenant with the people of Israel.